Part 2: Capabilities of Single-Channel Diamond-based Detectors for Ultra-fast Beam Intensity and Timing Measurements

Part 1 of this series provided an overview of the powerful capabilities presented by diamond-based detectors as a beamline diagnostic.

Part 2 will focus on the capabilities of Sydor’s single-channel devices to provide flux and pulsed timing measurements.

Collecting beam diagnostics is a critical part of understanding experiments taking place at light sources. Sydor’s single-channel diamond-based detectors offer a unique in-situ measurement solution for both intensity and timing. Below is a comparison of the two types of single-output devices offered by Sydor:

Monitor TypeIntensity MonitorTiming Monitor
Read out1 – channel1 – channel
Detection area3.1 mm x 3.1 mm3.1 mm x 3.1 mm
Acquisition rate200 MHz> 200 MHz – inquire for faster requirements
Potential ApplicationsFlux monitoringPulsed timing Flux Monitoring

Single-Channel Diamond-based X-ray Beam Monitors

Single Channel Beam Monitor
Single Channel Beam Monitor

X-ray beam intensity monitors are the simplest of Sydor’s beam monitor suite. The monitor is composed of an electronic-grade single crystal diamond with a single metallic contact pad on either side. When biased to 10 V, the material acts like a diode when exposed to x-rays. Charge is generated in the diamond media and it is read out using a current meter or one of Sydor’s T4U Electrometers. Traditionally, this type of device is used at beamlines to monitor x-ray beam intensity over time at locations including the National Synchrotron Light Source II at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

Monitors can be used as stand-alone devices, integrated in vacuum chambers, or be positioned on motorized stages to monitor beams as they are steered with other beamline elements. Additional customization options for these single-channel monitors include:

  • Tiling of four single-channel monitors to create a large area position monitor
  • Manufacturing with specialized cables and bias voltage to enable fast pulse timing measurements of individual synchrotron bunches

Beam Timing Measurements with Diamond-based X-ray Beam Monitors

The carrier mobility of electrons and holes in diamond is high, making it a viable solution for fast timing measurements. In 2010, scientists at BNL performed timing measurements of the synchrotron bunch structure using a series of detectors at NSLS at 1 keV. The detectors were single-crystal CVD diamond with a single metal contact on each side, like those that are used in Sydor’s monitors.

The reproduced plots shown below captures the 25 filled 1 ns x-ray pulses available from the storage ring when the diamond was biased at 150 V (left) and 1000 V (right). In both bias conditions, the y-axis output voltage from the detector shows the small pulse-to-pulse variations that exist within the storage ring. Increasing bias voltage from 150 to 1000 V does reduce tailing effects and baseline noise, suggesting that higher bias voltage on the device will result in a technology capable of resolving timing below 1 ns.

Beam Timing Measurements with Diamond-based X-ray Beam Monitors

Sydor has developed a reliable engineering solution to modify its existing suite of intensity monitors to capture data on similar time scales to those at NSLS. Modifications include a 20 V bias and off-the-shelf signal amplifier. Recent testing at APS measured individual x-ray pulses with flux ranging from 10E9 – 10E13 photons per pulse at 9.8 keV with a 1 ns rise time.

Measuring the intensity of individual x-ray pulses over time can act as a facility diagnostic and provide pulse-to-pulse data to correlate with beamline experiments. A key benefit of a Sydor monitor is the ability to gather both timing and intensity measurements in one device, with the added benefit of being able to remain in the beam without disrupting experiments downstream.

Built-to-Order Monitoring Devices

Sydor’s x-ray position monitors are all built-to-order and can be designed with housings customized for each customer’s preferences. In the decade that Sydor has sold these monitors, a handful of commonly requested designs have become standard offerings. Below is a sampling of those models:

Monitor Format“In-Air” MonitorStage-Mounted MonitorFlange-Mounted Monitor
HousingHousing 1Housing 2Housing 3
Available FlangesN/AN/ADN25 CF, DN160 CF, KF25, KF40, & more

To read more about the latest advancements in diamond-based detectors and beam diagnostics, please look for the next installment in this article series titled “Part 3: The Value of Ensuring Confidence in Beam Stabilization” in about 2 weeks.

For additional information please visit our X-ray Beam Monitors Page or contact us for a technical consultation with one of our technology experts.