Part 1: An Overview of Diamond-based Beam Monitors for In-Situ X-ray Beam Diagnostics

Compact Diamond-based Monitors for Synchrotron Diagnostics

Beamline diagnostics are a critical component of modern synchrotrons. The ability to gather beam data in-situ has been game-changing for scientists at light sources and is growing in popularity on a global scale.

The use of diamond as a sensor material has proven to be an extremely robust and reliable medium for the in situ measurement of x-ray beam intensity, position, and profile over the past decade.

Diamond-based detectors offer a small-footprint solution (<1 inch in the beam direction), allow transmission of >90% for x-rays above 5 keV, and have linear response from currents of pA to mA. This is in contrast to other detectors used for x-ray beam characterization like ion chambers, which take up 300% or more space in the beam direction and have poor linear range compared to that of diamonds. 

Many years of collaboration between Sydor Technologies and researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has resulted in a comprehensive suite of diamond-based x-ray detectors that are helping beamline scientists monitor the intensity, position, and profile of their beams during critical experiments. Below are some examples:

Sydor Technologies’ Diamond-based X-ray Beam Monitor Family

Monitor TypeIntensity
MonitorIntensity Monitor
MonitorTiming Monitor
MonitorPosition Monitor
X-ray CameraTransparent X-ray Camera
Read out1- channel1- channel4-channels32 x 32 image
Detection area3.1 mm x 3.1 mm3.1 x 3.1 mm3.1 mm, x 3.1 mm with 20 µm streets60 µm pixels
Acquisition rate200 MHz>200 MHz- inquire for special requirementsUp to 500 Hz for position monitors used with Sydor’s T4U Electrometers30 Hz
Potential ApplicationsFlux monitoringPulsed timing Flux monitoringPosition monitoring Flux Monitoring
Position monitoring Flux Monitoring Feedback*

*when used with Sydor’s T4U Electrometer with PID or TXC electronics with PID

Monitoring applications include:

  • Single-channel intensity (flux) monitors can record the intensity of individual x-ray pulses and correlate them with results of single-shot diffraction experiments with framing cameras like Sydor’s Keck-PAD.
  • Single-channel timing monitors capable of differentiating individual bunches at synchrotrons like the Advanced Photon Source (APS). 
  • Four-channel position monitors which can improve the efficiency of sample alignment and provide beam steering feedback when paired with Sydor’s T4U Electrometer with PID.
  • The Transparent X-ray Camera (TXC) is a pixelated beam monitor that enables users to image the beam and monitor its total flux and profile in real time. This profilometer is particularly beneficial in instances where having a gradient across the beam can impact diffraction or 2D imaging results.

Here you can see frames taken from a video of the TXC being used for toroidal mirror focusing taking place at NSLS-II, with the progression taking place from left to right:

Built-to-Order Monitoring Devices

Each beam monitor is available in flexible configurations and can be provided with thermal management for use with white beams. Modifications can be performed to provide enhanced temporal response. For those desiring a more turnkey solution, devices can be provided with additional beamline components such as alignment stages, bellows, and/or vacuum chambers.

To read more about the latest advancements in diamond-based detectors and beam diagnostics, please read the next installment of this article series titled Part 2: Capabilities of Single-Channel Diamond-based Detectors for Ultra-fast Beam Intensity and Timing Measurements.

For additional information please visit our X-ray Beam Monitors Page or contact us for a technical consultation with one of our technology experts.